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Other Genera: (in progress) Dacnopilio Graecophalangium

The following names are sometimes quoted as being valid. Some are clearly not, whilst others are open to interpretation. For each name, we provide a sourced explanation as to why it is not included in the "valid species" on this site.
On this page, “Roewer” refers to Roewer, 1923, "Hallan" refers to Hallan, 2005 & “Kury” refers to Kury, 2010.
Kury gives an excellent analysis of species names used upto 1804. His detailed explanations are not repeated here.

Invalid names
Name Explanation Status
Genus
Bactrophalangium
Šilhavý, 1966:251 set up a new genus, Bactrophalangium for his new species B. jakesi.
Staręga, 1978:215 transferred the species Phalangium ghissaricum Gricenko, 1976 to Bactrophalangium.
Snegovaya & Staręga, 2009:38 put Bactrophalangium (with its two species) into synonymy of Phalangium.
Phalangium
Species
P. aegyptiacum
Savigny, 1816
According to Roewer:870, this species (which probably belonged to either Egaenus or Zacheus) was not identifiable, based on the descriptions of either Savigny or Gervais. The type specimen was lost.
Cokendolpher, 1990:12 confirms the status.
Nomen dubium
P. bilineatum
Fabricius, 1779
Hallan lists this species as "unidentifiable". Roewer:744 states the type is untraceable and a piece at Frankfurt Museum is "completely macerated" [ein ganz mazeriertes Stück] and is not identifiable. Kury:527 confirms the status. Nomen dubium
P. cancroides
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Following Roewer:869, Hallan lists this species as belonging to Müller, 1776, and this has been repeated on many web pages. Kury:526 points out that this was one of the "four Linnean extraneous species", and had been listed as Acarus cancroides in 1758, being transferred to Phalangium in 1767 (Kury:525). Pseudoscorpion
P. clavipus
ssp. clavipus
Roewer, 1911
[See P. iberica]
Staręga, 1984:42 synonymized P. clavipus with Metaphalangium cirtanus. Papilio abstrusus (Koch, 1882) was synonymized at the same time. Following differences highlighted by Pons & Palmer, 1996, Prieto, 2003:136 introduced the new combination M. abstrusum for the species on the Balearic islands, which included the specimens previously known as P. clavipus, the species name abstrusum having priority [1882 vs 1911]. Metaphalangium abstrusum
P. conigerum
Sørensen, 1912
Hallan lists this species as "unidentifiable; immature". Roewer:746 refers to it being based on a single juvenile female, the location of the type being unknown. Nomen dubium
P. copticum
Savigny, 1816
Roewer (1923) synonymized this species with Metaphalangium proinquum, which was itself synonymized with M. cirtanum by Staręga, 1984. However, Staręga rejected Roewer's synonymy, considering it to be a Zachaeus species. In the absence of the type specimen, we follow Cokendolpher's suggestion (1990:12) of considering this species to be nomen dubium. Nomen dubium
P. coronatum
Fabricius, 1779
Following Kury:527 this species is identified as nomen dubium. Nomen dubium
P. crassum
Dufour, 1831
Hallan lists this species as "unidentifiable". Roewer:744 describes this species as "probably female of Phalangium tricuspidum" [which see]. He also notes the type is untraceable. Nomen dubium
P. cristatum
Olivier, 1791
Hallan lists this species as "unidentifiable". Roewer:744 describes it as “not identifiable - Type untraceable” [Nicht identifizierbar - Typ. Unauffindbar]. Nomen dubium
P. grossipes
Linnaeus, 1767
Hallan lists this species as “Pycnogonum?” Like Phalangium cancroides, this species is listed as Müller, 1776 in Hallan (based on Roewer:869 – where it is also noted as being “=Pycnogonum grossipes”) and this has been followed by many internet sites. However, as Kury:526 points out, Müller’s species was one of the “four Linnean extraneous species”. Pycnogonid
P. iberica
Schenkel, 1938
A lot of confusion has arisen about the name Phalangium iberica, due to an error in Hallan.
The lines:
 SPECIESPhalangium clavipus Roewer, 1911:12 [male; Mallorca]
 TYPE-SPECIESiberica Schenkel, 1939:26 [Spain]
should read:
 SPECIESPhalangium clavipus Roewer, 1911:12 [male; Mallorca]
 SUBSPECIES  iberica Schenkel, 1939:26 [Spain]
This has resulted in Phalangium iberica (which should be P. clavipus iberica) being incorrectly cited as the type species of the genus Phalangium on a number of internet sites. Hallan correctly identifies the type-species on the genus line [see also Crawford, 1992:38].
Prieto, 2003:132 synonymised P. clavipus iberica with Metaphalangium cirtanum.
Metaphalangium cirtanum
P. incanum
C.L. Koch, 1839
Hallan lists this species as “immature/Platypbunus?”. Roewer:870 notes that the type consists of only pieces of an apparently juvenile Platybunus sp. (unidentified). Nomen dubium
P. licenti
Schenkel, 1953
All modern references to this species list it as either "(?)", "nomen dubium" or "species inquirenda".
[See Tchemeris, 2012:13, Snegovaya & Staręga, 2009:38].
species inquirenda
P. lineola
Dufour, 1831
Hallan lists this species as “unidentifiable”. Roewer:745 describes it as “not identifiable - Type untraceable” [Nicht identifizierbar - Typ. Unauffindbar]. Nomen dubium
P. litorale
Störm, 1762
Hallan lists this species as “Pygnogonum litorale?”. Roewer:869 makes the same link, and also equates it with Phalangium balaenarum, which he cites as being Müller, 1776, but (as with previous species) was in fact a relisting from Linnaeus, 1767:1028 [Kury:526]. Linnaeus refers to Störm’s description in his own. Pycnogonid
P. longipes
(L. Koch, 1871)
This species was originally described by Koch as Cerastoma longipes, but Koch himself states (p.76) that he is convinced it is just a form of C. cornutum [“obgleich ich überzeugt bin, dass dieselbe seither, mit der typischen Form von Cerastoma cornutum vereinigt”]. Along with C. cornutum & C. curvicorne, Simon made it part of Phalangium opilio [1879:195]. Hallan correctly lists this synonymy. Phalangium opilio
P. lupatum
Eichwald, 1830
Updated 04 Sept 2014 Staręga, 1978:218-219 considers this species to be a member of the genus Zachaeus, a decision maintained in Snegovaya & Staręga, 2009:42. Zachaeus lupatum is not listed on Hallan. Zachaeus lupatum
P. mamillatum
Gervais, 1844
Roewer:711 (listing it in the Sclerosomatinae) describes it as “not identifiable - Type untraceable” [Nicht identifizierbar - Typ. Unauffindbar]. Nomen dubium
P. mesomelas
Sørensen, 1910
Staręga, 1984:64 places this species in Rhampsinitus, while noting that its affiliation and validity are questionable and “require an investigation” [bedürfen einer Nachprüfung]. According to Roewer:871, the type is in Stockholm Museum. It could therefore reasonably be listed as species inquirenda, but here we follow Staręga (subject to further investigation). Rhampsinitus mesomelas
P. minutum
Meade, 1855
Hallan (following Roewer:871) lists this species as being described in 1861, but Meade’s 1861 paper merely adds a location for the species. The original description appears in his 1855 paper (p405). Pickard-Cambridge, 1890, states that the species “appears to be very doubtful” (p168) and also notes that the types were “lost” (p182). This is a British species, but does not appear in the BMNH “Checklist for harvestmen of the British Isles” either as a named species or as a synonym [last checked 14/07/2014]. Nomen dubium
P. mucronatum
Müller, 1776
Hallan lists this species as “unidentifiable”. Roewer:744 describes it as “not identifiable - Type untraceable” [Nicht identifizierbar - Typ. Unauffindbar]. Kury:526 states that it is “unrecognizable”. Nomen dubium
P. muscorum
Latreille, 1798
Hallan lists this species as “unidentifiable”. Kury:528 states that this species was described originally in Latreille’s 1798 paper [the 1802 paper “repeat[ing] his 1798 paper”]. He further states that this species is “unidentifiable”. Roewer:745 (citing 1802 as the date) describes it as not identifiable. 1 piece in Frankfurt Museum is too macerated to be identified, and 3 pieces in Vienna belong to a juvenile Oligolophinae. Nomen dubium
P. ortoni
Wood, 1869
Cokendolpher & Peek, 1991:96 state that this was described from a single specimen, (the type is lost) and although it is "certainly not a Phalangium, the original description is inadequate for even a generic determination." They suggest the species should be regarded as species inquirenda, but without an adequate description or the only specimen, it is unclear how further inquiry could proceed. Nomen dubium
P. pallidum
Müller, 1776
This is #2299 in Müller’s list, which Kury:526 states to be “without a binomen”. However, the conclusion that the species is “unrecognizable” is a valid one based on the minimal description [abdomine linea nigra utrinque dentata, lateribus rubris.]. Nomen dubium
P. palmatum
Herbst, 1797
Hallan lists this species as “?amblypygid?? see Quintero, 1981”. Quintero, 1981:147 equates this species with the modern Phrynus gervaisii (Pocock, 1984). Harvey, 2003:28 equates it with Phrynus operculatus Pocock, 1902. Amblypygid
P. pycnogonum
Müller, 1776
Roewer:869 describes it as “Not identifiable. (Not opiliones).” [Nicht identifizierbar (kein Opilionide)]. Nomen dubium
P. rubens
Hermann, 1804
Hallan lists this species as “unrecognisable”. Kury:529 states “this species is not the same as Latreille’s Siro rubens, has never been cited again, and it is unrecognizable beyond clearly belonging to Eupnoi”. Nomen dubium
P. rudipalpe
Gervais, 1849
Roewer:870 states that this species is not identifiable based on Gervais’ decription and illustrations, and that the type is nowhere to be found. Nomen dubium
P. spiniferum
Cantor, 1842
Roewer:1088 states this species is not identifiable, but probably belongs to the Gagrellinae. The type is untraceable. Nomen dubium
P. tricuspidatum
Dufour, 1831
Hallan lists this species as “unidentifiable”. Roewer:745 describes it as “not identifiable - Type untraceable” [Nicht identifizierbar - Typ. Unauffindbar]. Nomen dubium
P. uncatum
Hermann, 1804
Hallan lists this species as “immature”. Kury:529 states this species is “unrecognizable (immature)”. Roewer:870 states that this is probably a juvenile Platybunus sp and that the type is in the Museum of Vienna. Further study of the type specimen would therefore be possible. Species inquirenda
P. zuvandicum
Snegovaya, 2005
This species was synonymised with Phalangium armatum by Snegovaya & Staręga, 2011:50 Phalangium armatum